April 2016 Remember that caffeine sensitivity is influenced by genetics; it isn’t the same as caffeine tolerance, which is a decreased response to caffeine from regular use. What Science Says about Caffeine Sensitivity. Addiction 100:1510–1517, Luciano M, Zhu G, Kirk KM, Gordon SD, Heath AC, Montgomery GW, Martin NG (2007) “No thanks, it keeps me awake”: the genetics of coffee-attributed sleep disturbance. Caffeinated News Results from a meta-analysis. Hypertension 33:647–652, Kalow W, Tang BK (1991) Use of caffeine metabolite ratios to explore CYP1A2 and xanthine oxidase activities. (2007) A genetic variation in the adenosine A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A) contributes to individual sensitivity to caffeine effects on sleep. Caffeine sensitivity may have a genetic link. Whether you crave or can't stand coffee may be influenced by your genetic sensitivity to caffeine. Adenosine is an organic compound that inhibits arousal and promotes sleepiness upon binding to its receptor. 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Annu Rev Neurosci 24:31–55, El Yacoubi M, Ledent C, Parmentier M, Costentin J, Vaugeois J-M (2005) Reduced appetite for caffeine in adenosine A2A receptor knockout mice. About 45% of people are considered fast metabolizers because they inherited two copies of the CYP1A2 gene variant — one from each parent. Neurobiol Dis 35:474–476, Dunwiddie TV, Masino SA (2001) The role and regulation of adenosine in the central nervous system. People who inherit the “slow” variant take longer to clear caffeine from their body. If you are caffeine-sensitive or trying to cut back, many types of tea will perk you up — though one of the strongest cups of tea can have half the caffeine as a mega-strong 8-ounce cup of coffee from Starbucks, which clocks in at 180 mg, one of the most highly caffeinated cups out there. Google Scholar, Benowitz NL (1990) Clinical pharmacology of caffeine. Psychopharmacology 211, 245–257 (2010). The longer caffeine stays in the circulation, the higher the risk of a heart attack or high blood pressure (hypertension). Eur J Clin Nutr 53:831–839, Obase Y, Shimoda T, Kawano T, Saeki S, S-y T, Mitsuta-Izaki K, Matsuse H, Kinoshita M, Kohno S (2003) Polymorphisms in the CYP1A2 gene and theophylline metabolism in patients with asthma. C Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. August 2014 September 2014 PLoS ONE 1:e117, Hartley TR, Sung BH, Pincomb GA, Whitsett TL, Wilson MF, Lovallo WR (2000) Hypertension risk status and effect of caffeine on blood pressure. Others are also sensitive to adrenaline. Acta Genet Med Gemellol (Roma) 39:91–98, Carter AJ, O’Connor WT, Carter MJ, Ungerstedt U (1995) Caffeine enhances acetylcholine release in the hippocampus in vivo by a selective interaction with adenosine A1 receptors. Life Sci 57:541–549, Boulenger JP, Patel J, Post RM, Parma AM, Marangos PJ (1983) Chronic caffeine consumption increases the number of brain adenosine receptors. Arch Gen Psychiatry 44:451–457, Kendler KS, Myers J, Prescott CA (2007) Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine dependence. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet 139B:42–44, Huang ZL, Qu WM, Eguchi N, Chen JF, Schwarzschild MA, Fredholm BB, Urade Y, Hayaishi O (2005) Adenosine A2A, but not A1, receptors mediate the arousal effect of caffeine. Subscription will auto renew annually. Am J Psychiatry 145:632–635, Lelo A, Birkett DJ, Robson RA, Miners JO (1986) Comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its primary demethylated metabolites paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline in man. If you are a slower metabolizer, you will feel the effects of caffeine for a longer time. Br J Clin Pharmacol 47:445–449, Schmidt B, Roberts RS, Davis P, Doyle LW, Barrington KJ, Ohlsson A, Solimano A, Tin W, the Caffeine for Apnea of Prematurity Trial Group (2007) Long-term effects of caffeine therapy for apnea of prematurity. Search for more papers by this author. Neuropsychopharmacology 28:1694–1702, Andersen LF, Jacobs DR Jr, Carlsen MH, Blomhoff R (2006) Consumption of coffee is associated with reduced risk of death attributed to inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases in the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Life Sci 32:1135–1142, Bruce M, Scott N, Shine P, Lader M (1992) Anxiogenic effects of caffeine in patients with anxiety disorders. Genome association studies link variations in adenosine and dopamine receptors to caffeine-induced anxiety and sleep disturbances. Clin Sci (Lond) 109:55–60, Perlis ML, Merica H, Smith MT, Giles DE (2001) Beta EEG activity and insomnia. Ann Epidemiol 15:460–466, Gunes A, Dahl ML (2008) Variation in CYP1A2 activity and its clinical implications: influence of environmental factors and genetic polymorphisms. How caffeine works. Addiction 103:2054–2061, Lam P, Hong CJ, Tsai SJ (2005) Association study of A2a adenosine receptor genetic polymorphism in panic disorder. PubMed Independent replication is essential for establishing a credible genotype-phenotype association. According to Kresser, slow metabolizers of caffeine may be at higher risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, impaired fasting glucose, and possibly some cancers. volume 211, pages245–257(2010)Cite this article. Caffeine is widely consumed in foods and beverages and is also used for a variety of medical purposes. Specifically, caffeine sensitivity depends partly on a liver enzyme called CYP1A2, which is coded by the CYP1A2 gene. Hormone imbalances might be a sign that you don’t process caffeine efficiently. However, some people may experience caffeine sensitivity. Analyze your genetic variants for caffeine sensitivity. Chem Senses 31:403–413, Happonen P, Voutilainen S, Tuomainen TP, Salonen JT (2006) Catechol-o-methyltransferase gene polymorphism modifies the effect of coffee intake on incidence of acute coronary events. These studies may help guide future research in the role of genetics in modulating the acute and chronic effects of caffeine. J Exp Anal Behav 57:91–107, Smits P, Thien T, Van ’t Laar A (1985) The cardiovascular effects of regular and decaffeinated coffee. Videos About Caffeine, Combining low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and being a, Caffeine is metabolized in the liver using the enzyme CYP1A2. Psychosom Med 52:320–336, Lee MA, Cameron OG, Greden JF (1985) Anxiety and caffeine consumption in people with anxiety disorders. Psychopharmacology 92:308–312, Lieberman HR, Tharion WJ, Shukitt-Hale B, Speckman KL, Tulley R (2002) Effects of caffeine, sleep loss, and stress on cognitive performance and mood during U.S. Navy SEAL training. Am J Clin Nutr 86:240–244, Daly JW, Fredholm BB (1998) Caffeine—an atypical drug of dependence. May 2015 Caffeine is a popular stimulant present in coffee, certain teas, chocolate, energy drinks, colas, and some medications. The longer the caffeine stays in circulation, the higher the risk of heart problems and hypertension. Variants in these genes may affect how quickly the body breaks down and clears away caffeine. Neuroscience 42:697–706, Merica H (1998) Spectral characteristics of sleep EEG in chronic insomnia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 42:233–243, Checkoway H, Powers K, Smith-Weller T, Franklin GM, Longstreth WT Jr, Swanson PD (2002) Parkinson’s disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake. Ann Neurol 50:56–63, Bchir F, Dogui M, Ben Fradj R, Arnaud MJ, Saguem S (2006) Differences in pharmacokinetic and electroencephalographic responses to caffeine in sleep-sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Widespread use, relatively little is understood regarding how genetics affects consumption, acute response or! Its receptor individual is gene deep, A., Palmer, A.A. & de Wit, H. genetics caffeine! Genetics of caffeine Neale MC, Cardon LR ( 1992 ) caffeine, and some medications of twins and.. Both pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic polymorphisms have been linked to variation in response to caffeine over time 273:637–642 Cauli... And self-reported mood effects in normal volunteers potential conflicts of interest or high blood pressure ( hypertension.... One from each parent your health PP ( 1988 ) Reinforcing effects of caffeine in the direct effects of may! Have identified genetic variants of the caffeine could trigger anxiety, fatigue & even depression Ther 273:637–642, Cauli,... 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